sentence It is certain that if there are fewer people driving, there will be less air pollution. /It-is-certain-that-if-there-are-fewer-people-driving+-there-will-be-less-air-pollution.= 1

It is certain that if there are fewer people driving, there will be less air pollution. 英语句型语法分析长句已解锁

["It", "is", "certain", "that", "if", "there", "are", "fewer", "people", "driving", ",", "there", "will", "be", "less", "air", "pollution", "."][{"i": 2, "s": [0, 1, 2, 3, 4], "r": "陈述句", "e": [1, 2, 3, 4, 18], "d": {"poses": [4], "piece_poses": [0, 1, 2, 3, 4]}}, {"i": 3, "s": [4, 11], "r": "固定搭配", "e": [11, 18], "d": {"poses": [0, 1], "piece_poses": [0, 1]}}, {"i": 4, "s": [4, 5], "r": "固定搭配", "e": [5, 11], "d": {"poses": [1], "piece_poses": [0, 1]}}, {"i": 7, "s": [5, 6, 7], "r": "陈述句", "e": [6, 7, 11], "d": {"poses": [2], "piece_poses": [0, 1, 2]}}, {"i": 9, "s": [7, 9], "r": "名词短语", "e": [9, 11], "d": {"poses": [0, 1], "piece_poses": [0, 1]}}, {"i": 17, "s": [11, 13, 14], "r": "陈述句", "e": [12, 14, 18], "d": {"poses": [2], "piece_poses": [0, 1, 2]}}][{"s": 1, "r": 9, "e": 2, "t": 2}, {"s": 2, "r": 4, "e": 3, "t": 2}, {"s": 3, "r": 20, "e": 18, "t": 2}, {"s": 3, "r": 8, "e": 4, "t": 2}, {"s": 4, "r": 5, "e": 11, "t": 2}, {"s": 4, "r": 8, "e": 5, "t": 2}, {"s": 5, "r": 21, "e": 6, "t": 2}, {"s": 6, "r": 9, "e": 7, "t": 2}, {"s": 7, "r": 3, "e": 11, "t": 2}, {"s": 7, "r": 3, "e": 9, "t": 2}, {"s": 9, "r": 15, "e": 11, "t": 2}, {"s": 9, "r": 9, "e": 10, "t": 2}, {"s": 11, "r": 21, "e": 12, "t": 2}, {"s": 12, "r": 22, "e": 13, "t": 2}, {"s": 13, "r": 9, "e": 14, "t": 2}, {"s": 14, "r": 3, "e": 18, "t": 2}]{"coos": [], "c": null, "e": 18, "subs": [{"coos": [], "c": 2, "e": 18, "subs": [{"coos": [], "c": 2, "e": 11, "subs": [], "s": 5, "r": "状语从句"}, {"coos": [], "c": 1, "e": 18, "subs": [], "s": 11, "r": "主句"}], "s": 4, "r": "主语从句"}], "s": 0, "r": "陈述句"}
暂无语法

可尝试扩展句子。越复杂的句子,分析结果越丰富。

[[0, 1], [1, 2], [2, 3], [3, 4], [4, 18]]
[]

It + is + certain + (for + sb.) + (that) + 主语从句

这是一个陈述句。

certain、confident 及 sure 的区别

certainconfidentsure意思都含确信的

注意! 当前仅对比在该相似语意下的区别
sure
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sure、certain 的区别

两者都可用作表语,表示一定确信,有时可互换。互换的场合应注意以下几点用法:

表示说话者的态度或看法

即表示说话者自己的态度或看法,其意为一定会肯定会。此时主要用法有:

(1) 单独用作表语:

  • One thing was [sure/certain]: they'd be late. 有一件事是确定无疑的,他们会迟到。

(2) 后接不定式:

  • He's [certain/sure] to win. 他一定会成功。
  • They're [certain/sure] to need help. 他们肯定需要帮助。
  • If you do this, you are [certain/sure] to be found out. 如果你这样做一定会被发现。
表示句子主语的判断或信念

即表示句子主语对某一情况的判断或信念,其意为相信, 确信, 有把握等。此时通常用于以下结构:

(1) 后接of/about sth:

  • He is [certain/sure] of success. 他确信会成功。
  • Are you certain [of/about] that? 你对此有把握吗?

(2) 后接of doing sth:

  • Our team is [certain/sure] of winning. 我们队有把握赢。
  • You can be [sure/certain] of his agreeing. 你可以放心他会同意。

(3) 后接that/whether/if宾语从句:

  • I am [sure/certain] that he is honest. 我肯定他是诚实的。
  • I'm [sure/certain] that it's not your fault. 我敢肯定这不是你的错。
  • Are you [certain/sure] that this is the right road? 你肯定这条路对吗?
be sure/certain为肯定式或疑问式时,后接that引导的从句;当为否定式时,后接whether/if引导的从句。
  • I'm not [sure/certain] whether he still works there. 我不能肯定他是否还在那里工作。
  • I wasn't [sure/certain] whether he would agree. 我不太肯定他是否会同意。
  • He wasn't [sure/certain] whether he would be able to get back in time. 他不能肯定他是否能准时回来。

(4) 后接其他从句:

  • I'm not [sure/certain] where she lives. 我不能肯定她住在哪里。
  • I'm not [certain/sure] who wrote it. 我不太清楚这是谁写的。
在完整分析区别时,需要在词法、句法、语义角度同时考虑。本小节分析语义上的区别。下面两小节则讲述词法、句法上的固定使用模式。

sure表示主观的推测或感觉,所述事实并不一定如此。

certain则指说话者有充分的理由或根据,肯定某事会发生。

即在上小节讲述的通用场景下使用surecertain,会存在一定的主、客观角度偏向,同时语气也会存在些许差异。

结合上下文

如果上下文提供了更多的支持依据,往往偏向更加肯定的语气,这时候,使用certain会更加适合语境。

  • I'm certain he wasn't in the classroom. I saw him in the library.
  • I'm certain that he will go the concert. He told me so an hour ago.

以下情况通常只用certain,而不用sure:

当句中用了形式主语或形式宾语it
  • It's certain that he'll come tomorrow. 他明天肯定会来。
  • I thought it certain that he would be late. 我肯定他会迟到。
  • It's certain that prices will go up. 价格肯定会上涨。
更多
  • It's not certain how much it will cost. 这要花多少钱还不确定。
作定语

表示某一, 某些

  • A certain Mr Green wants to see you. 有个叫格林先生的人想见你。
  • Certain plants are good to eat but others are not. 有些植物好吃, 而其他一些则不好吃。
  • A certain person called on me yesterday.
更多
  • Certain students have failed in the exam.

be sure (not) to do sth.(一定要或不要做某事)这类祈使句中通常不用certain:

  • Be sure not to forget it. 千万别忘记啦。
  • Be sure to get there before nine. 务必在九点前到达。
  • Be sure to turn off the light when leave. 离开时一定要关灯。

sure有时还可与there be搭配使用。如:

  • There's sure to be a place for him somewhere. 在什么地方准有他容身之地。
  • There is sure to be trouble when she gets his letter. 在她收到他的信时,肯定会有麻烦。
作定语

表示有把握的; 肯定的; 可靠的

  • Put it in a sure place.
  • There was only one sure way to succeed.
作副词

sure在美语中可用作副词作肯定答语,用以代替surely,相当于certainlyof course。而certain则不能用作副词。

  • I wonder if I could use your phone. Sure. Go ahead.
  • Zhou Lan, can I have a look at your copy of China Daily? Sure, go ahead.
用于for certain/for sure, 意为肯定地, 确切地等,两者可互换
  • I can't say for [certain/sure] when he will come. 我不敢肯定地说他什么时候来。
  • No one knows for [sure/certain] what happened to her. 没有人确切地知道她出了什么事。
用于make certain/make sure,意为弄清楚, 弄得有把握,两者可互换
  • They made [certain/sure] (that) they weren't late. 他们有把握不迟到。
  • I think there's a train at 10:40, but you'd better make [certain/sure] of it. 我想 10:40 有趟火车,但你最好去核实一下。

暂无例子
[[4, 11], [11, 18]]
[]

前置状语 + 主句, 构成状语前置结构

这是一个固定搭配。

暂无例子
[[4, 5], [5, 11]]
[]

if 引导的状语从句

这是一个固定搭配。

if 引导的条件状语从句

if含义为如果、假如,它引导的从句表示某件事发生所需要的条件,即在…条件下, 某事才能发生,在主句中充当状语,因此称之为条件状语从句

位置
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四大条件句详解

条件句用于表示仅当一个特定条件(在if + 从句中)满足时,主句(不包含if的句子)中的动作才会发生。

通常有如下两种结构:

If + 从句+ , + 主句 + .
主句 + if + 从句 + .
  • If it doesn't rain, we'll go to the park.
  • We'll go to the park if it doesn't rain.
关于逗号
1. 如果if + 从句出现在整句开头,不要忘了在其后添加逗号( , )
2. 如果主句部分出现在整句开头,则无须使用逗号。
(添加逗号是为了避免在书面语中主从句划分异常引起歧义。而if + 从句后置时,if引导词本身就潜在划分功能,所以前面的逗号可以省略)
次序引起的强调
在书面语中,次序引起的强调效果不是特别明显。但在口语中,配合语气强弱,很容易起到强调作用
1. if + 从句在前,强调if + 从句,即强调条件
2. 主句在前,强调主句,即强调结果

英语中一共有四大类条件句,在接下来的小节中,让 Enpuz 为您逐个做详细介绍。

第一条件句
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  • If you keep spending money like that, you'll be broke before you know it.
  • If we know more about what causes the result, we may be able to take measures before it is too late.
  • If we keep spending so much, before long we'll be without any money.
  • If you do that again, I'll beat the pants off of you.
  • If the neighbours do not give any sweets, the children might play a trick on them.
  • If anybody calls, tell them I am out, and ask them to leave their names and addresses.
  • The senator doesn't look too popular just now, but the acid test will be if he gets reelected.
  • If a little rain can ruin the best-laid plans of mice and men, think what an earthquake might do!
  • So as you can imagine, if your skin gets burned it can be very serious.
  • If it should snow tomorrow, they couldn't go out.

if 的其它常用短语:

if not要不if I were ..., 虚拟条件如果我是...
if anything should happen如果有什么会发生be. if you please
if 表语(介词)be. if 表语(介词)
if 表语(副词性介词)be. if 表语(副词性介词)
if 表语(形容词)be. if 表语(形容词)
if 表语(-ed 过去分词)be. if 表语(-ed 过去分词)
if 表语(-ing 现在分词)be. if 表语(-ing 现在分词)
if 表语(名词性副词)be. if 表语(名词性副词)
be. if ...if sth. (,) 主句,构成状语前置结构
分句 1 if 分句 2祈使成份 if 分句 1
分句 1 if 分句 2(祈使句)

[[5, 6], [6, 7], [7, 11]]
[]

There + be. + sth.

这是一个陈述句。
sent. 有..., 存在...

there be、have 有何区别

there be意为存在,强调某地有某物,不表示所属关系。

have表示所属关系,强调某人或某地有某物。

当前内容仅限登录后查看

There be 句型详解

这是一个固定句型,there be表示存在、有等含义,引出后续具体的名词成分。

there已经固化成一个引导词,所以不需要分析其成分属性。

There be句子整体其实是一个倒装结构,be.后面的名词才是句子的主语。

常见的完整there be句型如下:

There be + sth. + 地点/时间/状态.

其中地点/时间/状态可以存在一个或多个,也可以仅仅只是There be + sth.

There be句型可以和助动词、情态动词等结合使用。

  • There will be a holiday tomorrow.

主谓一致原则

如上所述,there be句型的主语是be之后的名词,所以系动词be的单复数由其后的名词决定:

1. 当动词be后所接的名词是单数可数名词或不可数名词时,be应该使用单数形式is

2. 当其后所接的名词是复数的可数名词时,be应该使用复数形式are

就近原则

如果there be后跟多个并列名词,离there be最近的名词决定整体的单复数形式,即最近的名词决定be是使用is/was还是are/were

  • There are five books and a cup on the table.
  • There is a cup and five books on the table.
句式
一般疑问句

There be句型的一般疑问句形式是将be放在there之前,回答时用yesno,后接简单答语。

A: Is there a cup on the table?

B: Yes, there is. No, there isn't.
特殊疑问句

There be句型的特殊疑问句主要有以how manyhow much做引导词的两种情况:

  • How many students are there in your school?
  • How much money is there in your pocket?
反意疑问句
  • There is a cup on the table, isn’t there?
作主语、宾语、或状语

非谓语形式的there to bethere being结构可用作主语、宾语、或状语等。

there being
  • I never dreamed of there being a picture on the wall.
  • There being no bus, we had to walk home.
  • No one told him about there being a meeting that afternoon.
注意! 该用法过于口语化,Enpuz 当前暂不支持解析
there to be

用作介词for的宾语:

  • It's a great pity for there to be much trouble in the class.

很多动词如:likepreferhatewantmeanintendexpectconsider等等也经常后接there to be

  • I don't want there to be any misunderstanding.
  • Students hate there to be too much homework.
  • We expect there to be more discussion about this.
特殊句型
There be + 主语 + doing. +介词短语.
  • There is a truck collecting rubbish outside.
  • There is a wallet lying on the ground.
there is no doing. (sth.)

含有如下两层含义:

1. 用来表明一个特定的动作是不可能的、不可行的。

  • There's no denying the appeal of the technology, regardless of its practicality.
  • There is no telling what he is going to do.
注意! 该用法过于口语化,Enpuz 当前暂不支持解析

2. 用来表明一个特定的动作是是不允许的、违法的。

  • There's no talking during the performance!
  • There is no cigarette smoking here.
There 引导的其它句子

There还可以接used to beseem to beappear to beis going to bebe likely to beliestand等。


  • If we are feeling down or lonely, there is nothing better than to see the smiling face of a good friend.
  • There were at least four people there that I knew.
  • There was a time when this village used to be very quiet.
  • There is a murderer at large in the city!
  • There were dirty marks on her trousers where she had wiped her hands.
  • At most there were three people in line ahead of me.
  • There was a woman who was the boss of the office in which I wanted to work.
  • There 's a system where the waste is disposed of using the principles of ecology.
  • In the big city, there are more schools and hospitals available for its people.
  • Where there is a will, there is a way.

there 的其它常用短语:

There be. sth. to do. (sth.)There happens to be sth.
be. there ?, there + be + sth. 的反意疑问句转化for there to be.
[[7, 9], [9, 11]]
[]

sth. + 动词的现在分词形式作定语

这是一个名词短语。

  • Bill keeps saying he'll get a job soon, but he's all talk and no action.
  • John had difficulty getting a loan even in the best of times because of his poor credit record.
  • Everyone burst out of the burning building.
  • Lloyd escaped from the burning building by the skin of his teeth.
  • When I tried to show Mary how to use a computer, it was a case of the blind leading the blind.
  • The camera cut to scenes of Atlanta burning.
  • I don't like seeing articles exposing people's private lives, but politicians are fair game for that kind of criticism.
  • John spent a lot of time campaigning against Sarah for class president.
  • The police questioning Maggie extracted the truth from her.
  • He is not the problem solving CEO that he was cracked up to be.
[[11, 12], [13, 14], [14, 18]]
[]

There + be. + sth.

这是一个陈述句。
sent. 有..., 存在...

there be、have 有何区别

there be意为存在,强调某地有某物,不表示所属关系。

have表示所属关系,强调某人或某地有某物。

当前内容仅限登录后查看

There be 句型详解

这是一个固定句型,there be表示存在、有等含义,引出后续具体的名词成分。

there已经固化成一个引导词,所以不需要分析其成分属性。

There be句子整体其实是一个倒装结构,be.后面的名词才是句子的主语。

常见的完整there be句型如下:

There be + sth. + 地点/时间/状态.

其中地点/时间/状态可以存在一个或多个,也可以仅仅只是There be + sth.

There be句型可以和助动词、情态动词等结合使用。

  • There will be a holiday tomorrow.

主谓一致原则

如上所述,there be句型的主语是be之后的名词,所以系动词be的单复数由其后的名词决定:

1. 当动词be后所接的名词是单数可数名词或不可数名词时,be应该使用单数形式is

2. 当其后所接的名词是复数的可数名词时,be应该使用复数形式are

就近原则

如果there be后跟多个并列名词,离there be最近的名词决定整体的单复数形式,即最近的名词决定be是使用is/was还是are/were

  • There are five books and a cup on the table.
  • There is a cup and five books on the table.
句式
一般疑问句

There be句型的一般疑问句形式是将be放在there之前,回答时用yesno,后接简单答语。

A: Is there a cup on the table?

B: Yes, there is. No, there isn't.
特殊疑问句

There be句型的特殊疑问句主要有以how manyhow much做引导词的两种情况:

  • How many students are there in your school?
  • How much money is there in your pocket?
反意疑问句
  • There is a cup on the table, isn’t there?
作主语、宾语、或状语

非谓语形式的there to bethere being结构可用作主语、宾语、或状语等。

there being
  • I never dreamed of there being a picture on the wall.
  • There being no bus, we had to walk home.
  • No one told him about there being a meeting that afternoon.
注意! 该用法过于口语化,Enpuz 当前暂不支持解析
there to be

用作介词for的宾语:

  • It's a great pity for there to be much trouble in the class.

很多动词如:likepreferhatewantmeanintendexpectconsider等等也经常后接there to be

  • I don't want there to be any misunderstanding.
  • Students hate there to be too much homework.
  • We expect there to be more discussion about this.
特殊句型
There be + 主语 + doing. +介词短语.
  • There is a truck collecting rubbish outside.
  • There is a wallet lying on the ground.
there is no doing. (sth.)

含有如下两层含义:

1. 用来表明一个特定的动作是不可能的、不可行的。

  • There's no denying the appeal of the technology, regardless of its practicality.
  • There is no telling what he is going to do.
注意! 该用法过于口语化,Enpuz 当前暂不支持解析

2. 用来表明一个特定的动作是是不允许的、违法的。

  • There's no talking during the performance!
  • There is no cigarette smoking here.
There 引导的其它句子

There还可以接used to beseem to beappear to beis going to bebe likely to beliestand等。


  • If we are feeling down or lonely, there is nothing better than to see the smiling face of a good friend.
  • There were at least four people there that I knew.
  • There was a time when this village used to be very quiet.
  • There is a murderer at large in the city!
  • There were dirty marks on her trousers where she had wiped her hands.
  • At most there were three people in line ahead of me.
  • There was a woman who was the boss of the office in which I wanted to work.
  • There 's a system where the waste is disposed of using the principles of ecology.
  • In the big city, there are more schools and hospitals available for its people.
  • Where there is a will, there is a way.

there 的其它常用短语:

There be. sth. to do. (sth.)There happens to be sth.
be. there ?, there + be + sth. 的反意疑问句转化for there to be.

[[8, 9]]
[]

people

这是一个名词短语。
n. 人; 人名, 国民; 人们, 大家; 名族; 种族

当前people可数。

man、people 及 person 有何区别

man用于表示男人时,与woman相对。

man用于表示人类时,没有复数形式,也不加任何冠词。

  • She ran away with a man called McTavish last year. 去年,她和一个叫麦克塔维什的男人私奔了。
  • The chick initially has no fear of man. 小鸡天生并不怕人。
  • He is the man of all others for the job. 他是所有人之中最适于干这工作的人。

people用于表示人们时,是集体名词,表泛指概念,前面不加冠词,且没有复数形式。

people作可数名词时表示民族。其复数形式为peoples。视具体语境,特别在无量词修饰的情况下,peoples也可以翻译成[全体]人民, 各族人民

some people一些人

many people许多人

these people这些人

this people这个民族

one people一个民族

  • You can chat to other people who are online. 你可以和其他在线的人聊天。
  • It's a triumph for the Chinese people. 这是中国人民的胜利。
  • Millions of people have lost their homes. 数百万人失去了家园。

person表示个别,一般用于比较精确的场合。

  • At least one person died and several others were injured. 至少一人死亡,还有几个人受伤。
  • A friend of mine is a very anxious person. 我的一个朋友是个非常容易焦虑不安的人。
  • Mary was the first person to think of the idea. 玛丽是第一个想到这个主意的人

暂无例子

people 的其它常用短语:

people of sth....人民
[[9, 10]]
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drive

这是一个动词短语。
vi. 驾驶, 开车; 猛击; 猛冲; 猛进; 飞跑; 驱进; 拼命干; 抽球; [高尔夫]发球

暂无例子

drive 的其它常用短语:

drive prep. sth.开车...drive 副词性介词开车...
drive 名词性副词,多表示位置、方向、时间开车...drive to sp.
drive at sth.意指...drive away at sth.努力做
drive away驱车离开drive through驾(车)穿过
drive home开车送回家drive to work
drive between sth.驶向(二者)之间drive between sth. and sth.
drive down to sp.drive down压低
drive into sth.开进drive in驶进
drive into the middle of nowheredrive on继续开车
drive out to sp.drive out开车出去
drive over to sp.drive over(开)车从...碾过
drive safely安全驾驶drive on sb. to sth.
drive on sb.drive out sb.
drive through sth.驾(车)穿过drive around开车四处转
drive off驾车离去drive up抬高
drive up to sp.drive sth.开车
drive a car on the leftdrive people to suicide
drive sth. to sth.drive sb. to tears
drive a coach and horses through sth.在...中找漏洞drive a hard bargain精打细算
drive a wedge between sb. and sb.drive back驾车返回
drive sb. out of one's mind使某人发疯drive sb. back on sth.
drive sb. back to sb.drive sb. nuts
drive sb. on to sth.drive sb. on
drive sb. out of sth.drive sth. back
drive back sth.驾车返回drive sb. out of office

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mod. + be. + ...

这是一个动词短语。

  • Organic vegetables are those that are grown without chemicals that can be harmful to human beings or the environment.
  • If we know more about what causes the result, we may be able to take measures before it is too late.
  • Your early reply will be highly appreciated.
  • Hundreds of jobs will be lost if the factory closes
  • Only athletes who have reached the agreed standard for their event will be admitted as competitors.
  • The senator doesn't look too popular just now, but the acid test will be if he gets reelected.
  • It is certain that if there are fewer people driving, there will be less air pollution.
  • It was born in when people created a new festival so that African Americans would be able to celebrate their history and culture.
  • In view of the seriousness of this problem, effective measures should be taken before things get worse.
  • He can be found in his office as a general rule.
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will/would + be.

这是一个动词短语。

will 与 would 有何区别

willwould都是情态动词,用于为主动词提供更多信息。

两者皆可描述未来发生的事,表明意图、可能性等。

  • I will join the expedition.
  • We will meet again in another life.
  • I would like to meet them again.
表示意愿或预测
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暂无例子
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air + pollution

这是一个名词短语。
n. 大气污染, 空气污染
air
n. 空气, 大气, 气流; 空中, 空间; 航空, 空军; 外观, 态度, 风度, 风格; 微风; 架子; 装腔作势; 传播, 公开; 曲调, 旋律
pollution
n. 污染; 污染物; 垃圾

  • air pollution reduced the visibility
  • The Japanese found it difficult to avoid air pollution
  • It is certain that if there are fewer people driving, there will be less air pollution.

air 的其它常用短语:

... air of sth.
It is certain that if there are fewer people driving, there will be less air pollution.

这是一个复合句

主句

It is certain that if there are fewer people driving, there will be less air pollution.

是一个陈述句,其时态为一般现在时

成份划分
new!
It形式主语 isbe 动词 certain表语(形容词) that if there ••• pollution.真实主语

从句

if there are fewer people driving, there will be less air pollution.

这是一个主语从句,其时态为一般将来时

其满足特殊句型: 。详情请参考下文具体介绍。

成份划分
new!
there形式主语或倒装引导词 will bebe 动词(复合结构) less air pollution.真实主语
谓语动词的状语、补语、伴随语:
if there are ••• driving,

从句

there are fewer people driving,

这是一个状语从句,其时态为一般现在时

成份划分
new!
there形式主语或倒装引导词 arebe 动词 fewer people driving,真实主语

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