sentence I should pay Mary a visit, but I'm not sure whether I will have time this Sunday. /I-should-pay-Mary-a-visit+-but-I~m-not-sure-whether-I-will-have-time-this-Sunday.= 1

I should pay Mary a visit, but I'm not sure whether I will have time this Sunday. 英语句型语法分析长句已解锁

["I", "should", "pay", "Mary", "a", "visit", ",", "but", "I", "'m", "not", "sure", "whether", "I", "will", "have", "time", "this", "Sunday", "."][{"i": 0, "s": [0, 7, 8], "r": "陈述句", "e": [7, 8, 20], "d": {"poses": [0, 2], "piece_poses": [0, 1, 2]}}, {"i": 7, "s": [2, 3, 5], "r": "动词短语", "e": [3, 4, 6], "d": {"poses": [1], "piece_poses": [0, 1, 2]}}, {"i": 16, "s": [11, 12, 13], "r": "固定搭配", "e": [12, 13, 20], "d": {"poses": [2], "piece_poses": [0, 1, 2]}}][{"s": 1, "r": 22, "e": 2, "t": 2}, {"s": 2, "r": 10, "e": 7, "t": 2}, {"s": 2, "r": 9, "e": 3, "t": 2}, {"s": 3, "r": 3, "e": 4, "t": 2}, {"s": 4, "r": 3, "e": 7, "t": 2}, {"s": 7, "r": {"r": "转折", "m": "but"}, "e": 8, "t": 5}, {"s": 9, "r": 9, "e": 10, "t": 2}, {"s": 10, "r": 7, "e": 11, "t": 2}, {"s": 11, "r": 4, "e": 20, "t": 2}, {"s": 12, "r": 20, "e": 20, "t": 2}, {"s": 12, "r": 8, "e": 13, "t": 2}, {"s": 14, "r": 22, "e": 15, "t": 2}, {"s": 15, "r": 10, "e": 20, "t": 2}, {"s": 15, "r": 20, "e": 17, "t": 2}, {"s": 15, "r": 9, "e": 16, "t": 2}, {"s": 16, "r": 3, "e": 17, "t": 2}, {"s": 17, "r": 7, "e": 20, "t": 2}]{"coos": [{"coos": [], "c": 1, "e": 7, "subs": [], "s": 0, "r": "分句 1"}, {"coos": [], "c": 1, "e": 20, "subs": [{"coos": [], "c": 2, "e": 20, "subs": [], "s": 13, "r": "宾语从句"}], "s": 8, "r": "分句 2"}], "s": 0, "e": 20, "subs": []}
暂无语法

可尝试扩展句子。越复杂的句子,分析结果越丰富。

[[0, 7], [7, 8], [8, 20]]
[]

分句 1 + but + 分句 2

这是一个陈述句。

but 详解

作连词
表示转折

意为但是, 然而, 可是,所连接的成分意思相反或相对,使其前后的词、短语、分句相互对照。

  • Our school is small but beautiful. 我们学校虽然小但很漂亮。
  • The car is very old but it runs very fast. 虽然小汽车旧了,但跑得很快。
  • It was a sunny but not very warm day. 那一天天气晴朗,却不太暖和。
更多
  • She is young but very experienced. 她虽然年轻但经验丰富。
  • He drives not carefully but slowly. 他开车不是很小心,而是开得很慢。
注意! 在英语中,除复合连词外,一个句子只能使用一个连词。

所以,与中文习惯相反,表示转折的but不能与表示让步的thoughalthough同时使用。

他们虽是孪生,但是相貌却完全不同。

误: Although they are twins, but they look entirely different.

正: They are twins, but they look entirely different.

正: Although they are twins, they look entirely different.

表示委婉的拒绝

通常用于含有歉意的话语之后,可以认为是情绪与意愿之间的转折,以委婉地表达谢绝或不赞成。

  • I'm sorry, but I disagree with you. 对不起,我不同意你的意见。
表示递进

在否定谓语之后使用but,与否定词联合翻译为没有...不..., 每次...无不..., 只要...必然...

  • It never rains but it pours. 不雨则已,一雨倾盆。
  • I never go past that house but I think of my miserable life in the old society. 我走过那所房子时,没有一次不想起我在旧社会所过的悲惨生活。
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but、except 及 besides 有何区别

介词butexceptbesides都可表示除...之外

besides表示一种累加关系,意指除了什么之外, 还有...,侧重于另外还有...

exceptbut则表示一种排除关系,意指除了什么之外, 不再有...,侧重于除了...之外

  • Besides his wife, his daughter also went to see him. 除他妻子外,他女儿也去看过他(即妻子女儿都去看过他)。
  • Nobody went to see him [except/but] his wife. 除他妻子外,没有一个人看过他(即只有他妻子去看过他)。
注意! 在否定句中,besides也表示除...之外不再有... ,与butexcept同义
  • No one passed the exam [besides/except] Jim. 除吉姆外,没一个人通过考试。
but 与 except 的区别

两者都可表示除...外不再有...

侧重不同

but侧重表达“几乎完整”。

except侧重强调“后面除去的部分”。

  • I love all fruits but orange. 我喜欢所有水果但不包括桔子。
  • I love all fruits except orange. 除了桔子我喜欢所有水果。

but、however、while 有何区别

buthoweverwhile都可表示但是, 可是, 然而

but
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  • The plan didn't work, but I'll give you an A for effort for trying.
  • The senator doesn't look too popular just now, but the acid test will be if he gets reelected.
  • Hiking is fun and exciting, but you shouldn't forget safety.
  • He made a mistake, but then he corrected the situation before it got worse.
  • He's mighty handsome, but I hear he's all show and no go.
  • I cheated on the entrance exam, but I really want to get into that school, and all's fair in love and war.
  • Bill keeps saying he'll get a job soon, but he's all talk and no action.
  • People have been playing the music for many years, but the music has kept many of its characteristics.
  • I know I laugh at him but, joking aside, he's a very clever scientist.
  • His own remarks argue against his qualifications for the office, but he probably will be elected anyway.

but 的其它常用短语:

分句 1 but 分句 2祈使成份 but 分句 1
分句 1 but 分句 2(祈使句)but 补足成份
but adj.分句 1 but then 分句 2...不过...
but 表语(介词)be. but 表语(介词)
but 表语(副词性介词)be. but 表语(副词性介词)
but 表语(形容词)be. but 表语(形容词)
but 表语(-ed 过去分词)be. but 表语(-ed 过去分词)
but 表语(-ing 现在分词)be. but 表语(-ing 现在分词)
but 表语(名词性副词)be. but 表语(名词性副词)
be. but ...but also 表语(-ing 现在分词)

[[2, 3], [3, 4], [4, 7]] [[2, 3], [3, 4], [5, 6]]
[]

pay + sth. + a + visit

这是一个动词短语。
pay sth. sth.
vt. 支付, 付清, 补偿, 偿还, 对...有利, 为...涂防水物
visit
n. 访问参观; 游览; 造访, 拜访; 逗留; 作客; 视察, 巡视; 探望; (医生)出诊; (病人)就诊; 闲谈, 聊天

  • Bill paid a visit to his aunt in Seattle.
  • I should pay Mary a visit , but I'm not sure whether I will have time this Sunday.

pay 的其它常用短语:

pay sth. sth.支付pay sth. to sth.
pay sth.支付pay sth. for sth.
pay tax纳税pay back the money还钱
pay by check用支票支付pay cash[经] 付现
pay a visit to sth.参观...pay a call at sp.
pay respect to sth.考虑...pay honour to sth.向...致敬
pay waypay attention to sth.注意
pay in cash[经] 付现钱pay a call on sb.
pay a visit进行访问pay out付出
pay the bill付帐单pay the duties纳税
pay a lot of attention to sth.pay through the nose被勒索
pay in a lump sumpay cash on delivery
pay the excess train fare补票pay interests on sth.
pay down当场支付pay no notice to sb.
pay through sth. for sth.为某事付出代价pay a call进行访问
pay an arm and a leg付出极高的代价pay as you go帐单到期即付
pay attention专心pay by sth.用...支付
pay court to sb.pay heed to sb.
pay in advance预付pay into sth.支付给...
pay lip service to sth.嘴上说得好听pay lip service口惠无实
pay on sth.pay one's debt to society
pay one's debt还债pay one's dues还账
pay one's last respects to sb.pay one's last respects致以最后的敬意
pay sb. a complimentpay sb. a left-handed compliment
pay sb. a pound of fleshpay off sb.

[[11, 12], [12, 13], [13, 20]]
[]

be. + sure + whether 引导的宾语从句

这是一个固定搭配。
v. 确信..., 肯定..., 有把握...

certain、confident 及 sure 有何区别

certainconfidentsure意思都含确信的

注意! 当前仅对比在该相似语意下的区别
sure
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if、whether 有何区别

ifwhether都含有是否的意思。

两者各自的用法都极其丰富,也导致很多初学者大受困惑,即在哪些情况下可以用或不可以用其中之一。

在详细罗列具体区别之前,为避免进一步困惑大家,我们先化繁为简,直接给出如下记忆量最小的结论。

规则一
if仅在引导部分名词性从句时,才有是否的含义,其中包括引导后置主语从句及引导部分宾语从句。
规则二
whether可以引导几乎全部名词性从句(除否定宾语从句外),即在满足规则一后可用if的情况下,大多也可用whether。只是whether更正式,而if更口语化、更常见。
引导状语从句

两者皆可引导状语从句,但无任何相似之处。

if引导条件状语从句,表示如果...; 即使...; 每当

whether引导让步状语从句,表示不管...; 无论...,从句中通常用一般现代时代替将来时。

引导宾语从句时
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sure、certain 有何区别

两者都可用作表语,表示一定确信,有时可互换。互换的场合应注意以下几点用法:

表示说话者的态度或看法

即表示说话者自己的态度或看法,其意为一定会肯定会。此时主要用法有:

(1) 单独用作表语:

  • One thing was [sure/certain]: they'd be late. 有一件事是确定无疑的,他们会迟到。

(2) 后接不定式:

  • He's [certain/sure] to win. 他一定会成功。
  • They're [certain/sure] to need help. 他们肯定需要帮助。
  • If you do this, you are [certain/sure] to be found out. 如果你这样做一定会被发现。
表示句子主语的判断或信念

即表示句子主语对某一情况的判断或信念,其意为相信, 确信, 有把握等。此时通常用于以下结构:

(1) 后接of/about sth:

  • He is [certain/sure] of success. 他确信会成功。
  • Are you certain [of/about] that? 你对此有把握吗?

(2) 后接of doing sth:

  • Our team is [certain/sure] of winning. 我们队有把握赢。
  • You can be [sure/certain] of his agreeing. 你可以放心他会同意。

(3) 后接that/whether/if宾语从句:

  • I am [sure/certain] that he is honest. 我肯定他是诚实的。
  • I'm [sure/certain] that it's not your fault. 我敢肯定这不是你的错。
  • Are you [certain/sure] that this is the right road? 你肯定这条路对吗?
be sure/certain为肯定式或疑问式时,后接that引导的从句;当为否定式时,后接whether/if引导的从句。
  • I'm not [sure/certain] whether he still works there. 我不能肯定他是否还在那里工作。
  • I wasn't [sure/certain] whether he would agree. 我不太肯定他是否会同意。
  • He wasn't [sure/certain] whether he would be able to get back in time. 他不能肯定他是否能准时回来。

(4) 后接其他从句:

  • I'm not [sure/certain] where she lives. 我不能肯定她住在哪里。
  • I'm not [certain/sure] who wrote it. 我不太清楚这是谁写的。
在完整分析区别时,需要在词法、句法、语义角度同时考虑。本小节分析语义上的区别。下面两小节则讲述词法、句法上的固定使用模式。

sure表示主观的推测或感觉,所述事实并不一定如此。

certain则指说话者有充分的理由或根据,肯定某事会发生。

即在上小节讲述的通用场景下使用surecertain,会存在一定的主、客观角度偏向,同时语气也会存在些许差异。

结合上下文

如果上下文提供了更多的支持依据,往往偏向更加肯定的语气,这时候,使用certain会更加适合语境。

  • I'm certain he wasn't in the classroom. I saw him in the library.
  • I'm certain that he will go the concert. He told me so an hour ago.

以下情况通常只用certain,而不用sure:

当句中用了形式主语或形式宾语it
  • It's certain that he'll come tomorrow. 他明天肯定会来。
  • I thought it certain that he would be late. 我肯定他会迟到。
  • It's certain that prices will go up. 价格肯定会上涨。
更多
  • It's not certain how much it will cost. 这要花多少钱还不确定。
作定语

表示某一, 某些

  • A certain Mr Green wants to see you. 有个叫格林先生的人想见你。
  • Certain plants are good to eat but others are not. 有些植物好吃, 而其他一些则不好吃。
  • A certain person called on me yesterday.
更多
  • Certain students have failed in the exam.

be sure (not) to do sth.(一定要或不要做某事)这类祈使句中通常不用certain:

  • Be sure not to forget it. 千万别忘记啦。
  • Be sure to get there before nine. 务必在九点前到达。
  • Be sure to turn off the light when leave. 离开时一定要关灯。

sure有时还可与there be搭配使用。如:

  • There's sure to be a place for him somewhere. 在什么地方准有他容身之地。
  • There is sure to be trouble when she gets his letter. 在她收到他的信时,肯定会有麻烦。
作定语

表示有把握的; 肯定的; 可靠的

  • Put it in a sure place.
  • There was only one sure way to succeed.
作副词

sure在美语中可用作副词作肯定答语,用以代替surely,相当于certainlyof course。而certain则不能用作副词。

  • I wonder if I could use your phone. Sure. Go ahead.
  • Zhou Lan, can I have a look at your copy of China Daily? Sure, go ahead.
用于for certain/for sure, 意为肯定地, 确切地等,两者可互换
  • I can't say for [certain/sure] when he will come. 我不敢肯定地说他什么时候来。
  • No one knows for [sure/certain] what happened to her. 没有人确切地知道她出了什么事。
用于make certain/make sure,意为弄清楚, 弄得有把握,两者可互换
  • They made [certain/sure] (that) they weren't late. 他们有把握不迟到。
  • I think there's a train at 10:40, but you'd better make [certain/sure] of it. 我想 10:40 有趟火车,但你最好去核实一下。

  • I should pay Mary a visit, but I'm not sure whether I will have time this Sunday.
  • Three men are working on some kind of equipment, but I'm not sure whether it's a ship or an oil rig.

sure 的其它常用短语:

be. sure wh-/how + 不定式, wh-/how + 不定式作宾语成份be. sure whether + 不定式, whether + 不定式作宾语成份
be. sure to do. (sth.)确定...be. sure for sb. to do. (sth.)确信
be. sure of sth.确信...sure sth.肯定的...
sure enough果然be. sure about sth.对...有把握


[[1, 2], [2, 7]]
[]

mod. + do.

这是一个动词短语。

暂无例子
[[1, 2], [2, 7]] [[1, 2], [2, 7]]
[]

shall/should + do.

这是一个动词短语。

shall、should 的区别

shall

shall是情态助动词,即为主动词提供更多信息。

shall往往涉及必然性(Certainty)必要性(Necessities)主动提议,在时态上指向未来。

  • I shall be there on time. 我会准时到那。
  • You shall pass the exam. 你会通过考试。
  • Shall I close the door? 我需要把门关上吗?
起源

有必要提下shall的起源,以方便区分很多"古怪"的结论。

shall最早起源于 17 世纪(英式英语)

当时它被用来替换will,当主语是第一人称(I, We)时。

这一直接对应转化在现代英语中已经很少见,可以认为已经过时。

反而,在现代英语中,特别是美式英语中,多用will代替shall,如涉及不那么正式、语气不特别强烈的必然性时。

  • I [shall/will] be there on time. 我会准时到那。

当然,shall依然有它的独自的使用场景:

1. 涉及语气强硬必然性、必要性,如带保证、下决心、命令、警告、允诺、威胁。

2. 涉及内容正式必然性、必要性,如规章、法令。

3. 由第一人称发起的带主动提议的疑问句。

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暂无例子
[[3, 4]]
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Mary

这是一个名词短语。
n. (名称)

Mary是一个专有名词。


暂无例子
[[14, 15], [15, 20]]
[]

mod. + do.

这是一个动词短语。

暂无例子
[[14, 15], [15, 20]] [[14, 15], [15, 20]]
[]

will/would + do.

这是一个动词短语。

will、would 有何区别

willwould都是情态动词,用于为主动词提供更多信息。

两者皆可描述未来发生的事,表明意图、可能性等。

  • I will join the expedition.
  • We will meet again in another life.
  • I would like to meet them again.
表示意愿或预测
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暂无例子
[[15, 16], [16, 17]] [[15, 16], [16, 17]]
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have + time

这是一个动词固定搭配。
v. 有时间; 有空

there be 与 have 的区别

there be意为存在,强调某地有某物,不表示所属关系。

have表示所属关系,强调某人或某地有某物。

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  • Sam intended to square everything with Henry when he had time .
  • Sally and Liz didn't have enough time to exchange more than five words.
  • A group of people in the US Army are playing a baseball game while they have down time .
  • A mother and daughter having special family time together.
  • A dog having a fun time .
  • Lefty had done time on a number of occasions.
  • Unhappy people dressed in black have a miserable time
  • The child is having a fun time .
  • The family is having time together.
  • several people are having a fun time

have 的其它常用短语:

have sth. on穿着...have sth. over sth.
have a pain in sth.某个部位有点疼have a walk散步
have sports进行体育活动have a get-together
have a meeting开会have supper吃晚餐
have a good knowledge of sth.have a bath洗澡
have one's moment走红have interest in sth.对...有兴趣
have ... memoryhave a rest休息一下
have sth. for lunchhave a fever发烧
have a nice time玩得很开心have difficulty doing. (sth.)做某事有困难
have a talk晤谈have some有一些
have a fit大发脾气have a drink喝一杯
have a drink of sth.喝一点...have a test进行测验
have concern with sth.与...有关have a strong desire to do. (sth.)
have the heart to do. (sth.)有勇气做(某事)have a problem with sth.不同意
have sth. to burnhave a tendency to do. (sth.)
have a fancy for sth.喜欢have a good journey一路顺风
have respect for sth.考虑...have a picnic吃野餐
have no lack of sth.不缺乏have trouble doing. (sth.)...(做某事)有困难
have trouble in sth.有困难have difficulty with sth.有...方面有困难
have a bloomhave some medicine
have a cough(患)咳嗽have a dance跳舞
have a field triphave ... look有...表情
have a look at sth.看一看...have a swim游泳
have a short memory健忘have no money
have good mannershave a meal吃饭

[[17, 18], [18, 20]] [[17, 18], [18, 19]]
[]

this + Sunday

这是一个状语结构。
adv. 这周日; 在这周日
Sunday
n. 星期日; 礼拜日; 安息日, 主日

  • The minister is not preaching this Sunday
  • I should pay Mary a visit, but I'm not sure whether I will have time this Sunday .
I should pay Mary a visit, but I'm not sure whether I will have time this Sunday.

这是一个并列句,其使用并列连词 but 连接前后两个分句,使得两个分句之间存在转折关系。

分句 1

I should pay Mary a visit,

这是一个陈述句,其时态可以是一般过去时一般过去将来时一般现在时一般将来时

成份划分
new!
I主语 should pay谓语动词(复合结构) Mary间接宾语 a visit,直接宾语

分句 2

I'm not sure whether I will have time this Sunday.

这是一个陈述句,其时态为一般现在时

它与分句 1 之间存在转折关系。

成份划分
new!
I主语 'mbe 动词 sure whether I ••• Sunday.表语(形容词)
谓语动词的状语、补语、伴随语:
not

从句

I will have time this Sunday.

这是一个宾语从句,其时态为一般将来时

成份划分
new!
I主语 will have谓语动词(复合结构) time宾语
谓语动词的状语、补语、伴随语:
this Sunday.

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